Introduction and Importance:
Citrus cultivars are grown in varying quantities in countries
with tropical or sub tropical climate. Citrus stands first
in area and production among the worlds tree fruits. In
Pakistan also, citrus fruits are the most important fruit
crops grown on the area of 160,000 hectares with production
of 1.5 MMT annually. Citrus fruit is grown in all four
provinces of Pakistan but Punjab produces over 95% of
the crop because of its greater population, favorable
growing conditions and adequate water. Citrus is divided
into different groups Sweet oranges, Mandarine, Grape
fruit, Lemon and Lime which are being grown commercially.
Area and Production of Citrus
To convert hectares into acres multiply
Major Citrus Growing Areas in Pakistan:
||Distt. Sargodha, Sahiwal, Lahore, Sialkot, Jhang,
Minwali, Multan, Gujranwala
||Mardan, Peshawer, Swat, Swabi, Noshera, Hazzara
||Sukkur, Khairpur, Nawabshah
||Mekran, Sibi and Kech.
Following are the main commercial varieties:
||Succri,. Mausami, Washington Navel,
Jaffa, Red Blood, Ruby Red and
||Feutrells Early and Kinnow
||Mash Seedless, Duncan, Foster and Shamber
||Eureka, Lisbon Lemon and rough Lemon
||Kaghzi Lime and Sweet Lime
All the improved varieties are propagated by means of
budding on rough lemons or sour orange. Rootstocks are
generally grown through seed, T budding/T grafting are
the usual method of citrus cultivars propagation. Budding
may be done during spring (Feb-March) and autumn (August-October)
when bark slip freely from both scion and stock. Bud should
be selected from mature wood of productive and healthy
trees. In sweet lime propagation through cutting is a
Soil and Climate:
Citrus trees can be grown on a wide range of soils, including
deep sandy loam, loam and clay loam. However, they do
not grow well in very heavy, clayey, sandy, and alkaline
or water logged soils. Citrus fruits trees are grown in
tropical and sub-tropical climate. Temperature is the
main factor affecting, time of blooming, maturity, producing
and fruit quality of citrus.
At the time of transplanting the top portion should be
balanced with the roots by removing some of the leaves,
if necessary. Annual pruning is done to remove dried,
diseased and those branches overcrowding the top of the
tree. For a young citrus tree to have good frame work,
no branches should be allowed on the main stem and two
to four evenly spaced main limbs should be selected to
provide balanced frame work. In Pakistan however, no systematic
pruning is followed except for removal of dried, diseased
and unwanted twigs.
The preferred method of irrigation is a basin round each
tree the size of. There should be channels connecting
basins so that irrigation of fruits trees can be independent
of the intercropped area between the tree lines which
have different water requirements. Growth sensitive periods
to water shortage are flowering time (Feb/Mar), fruit
Fertilizers and Manures :
- Apply FYMs at the rate of 40 to 80 kg per tree
during the winter season in Dec/Jan before flowering
- Apply 3-4 kg SSP and 1.5 to 2 kg of Urea 15-20 days
(Jan/Feb) febore flowering
- Supply a further amount of Urea of 1.5 kg per tree after fruit setting (Mar/Apr)
- If necessary 1.5 kg of Potassium Sulphate may be applied at the time of applying FYM
- Watering is essential after each application of fertilizer
Pests and Diseases
Aphids: Citrus Leaf Minor:
These are small brown colored
insects. They suck the sap from the leaves and branches
and cause great damage to trees and reduction of yield.
Aphid attack is severe during Feb and April. Use Dizenon
40% or Eldrine 20%, 1 kg in 450 litres of water. Insecticides
should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the
the leaves. the attacked leaves become curled and deformed.
If causes great losses in growth and yield. Use Malathion
57 or Matasystox 50% at the rate of 500 grams in 450
litres of water per acre for its control.
This also attacks fresh leaves.
It can be controlled effectively by using Malathion
This attacks the fruits and causes great losses in yield
and quality. This pest can also be controlled by using
Malathion 57%. This should not be applied within 6 weeks
of marketing the fruit.
These are sucking types of insects and cause
great damage to Kinnow and sweet oranges in Punjab.
They can survive throughout the year. Use Parathion
or Malathion at the rate of 752 grams in 450 litres
of water per acre for its effective control.
This is a fungus which attacks the root of the trees.
Its attack is severe in poorly drained soils. The affected
tree gradually dries up. Remove the soil from around
the affected trees without damaging the roots and improve
on farm drainage for its effective control.
This disease is caused by nutritional deficiencies.
The branches and fruits of the affected trees start
drying and the tree becomes uneconomical to maintain.
Apply a balanced dose of Bordeaux Mixture 450 after
cutting affected branches from the trees.
This is a bacterial disease. It attacks leads
and the fruits. It forms canker like spots on the leaves
and stems of the fruit causing great reduction in yield
and quality of the fruit. There is no effective treatment
for this disease except to cut and remove the affected
trees and spray Formaldehyde at the spots from where
the diseased trees have been removed.
Picking of citrus fruits is done almost throughout
the year. The fruit should be picked when it is fully
ripe. It will not develop taste or sugar in storage
after picking. The best method is to pick the individual
fruit by holding it in one hand and cutting the stalk
with a knife and collecting it into boxes or baskets
to avoid injury to the stem. The average yield expected
from different types of fruits in various species are
500 to 1000 fruit per tree.
Pakistan is blessed with
a climate ideally suited to the farming of all kinds
of fruits - rich in taste and juicy. Farmers have been
developing new varieties of fruit by grafting one exotic
variety with other.
Season of Kino in Pakistan starts
from December and last till April. Kinnow is very delicious
in taste and if treated with proper fungicide and wax
and careful handing and storage of Kinnow at about 4
Degree Centigrade can retain it's freshness until 2
Pakistan is one of the few countries in the
world where some of the varieties of fruits grown in
cool temperate climate such as apples, pears, plums
and cherries while in warm temperate climate such as
apricots, grapes, pomegranates and melon and in tropical
and subtropical climate such as bananas, mangoes, dates,
guava and citrus so the fruits are usually available
throughout the year.
Nature has blessed Pakistan with
ideal climate for growing a wide range of delicious
fruits and large varieties of vegetables. Over the years,
Pakistani experts have developed unique stains of exotic
fruit varieties unmatched for their rich flavor and
taste. From the selection of the finest fruits grown,
a reasonable quantity is processed and properly packed
for sales and consumption in local market and exporting
Pakistan exported 268,741 tones of fruits worth
US$ 79.83 million during 2000-01, while the export of
vegetables stood at $22.50 million. Out of the total
exports of fruits and vegetables the share of mangoes
was 53,443 tonnes valuing $16.54 million, showing an
increase of 43 per cent over the 1999-00.
is the main contributor to GDP either directly or indirectly
in the form of agro-based industries. The production
of fruits and vegetables is not fully utilized and after
their domestic consumption a major part is wasted due
to lack of infrastructure, storage and processing facilities.
The wastage quantity can be utilized by just streamlining
and regulating the system from grower to export markets.
Pakistan produces large varieties of mangoes, its production
has increased from 908 thousand tonnes in 1995-96 to
937 thousand tonnes in 1999-00. World production of
mangoes stood at 19 million tons in 1995, which rose
to 23.8 million tonnes in 1999, registering an increase
of 24.75 per cent over the five years. Philippines and
China have achieved much over 100 per cent increase
in mango production during that period. Thailand is
another country, which has also registered a significant
increase. Rise in Pakistan's annual mango production
during 1995-99 is only 3.4 per cent. Our share in global
mango production in 1999 is 3.8 per cent.
Pakistani kinoos and apples are also in great demand
in the international market. Balochistan produces about
480,000 tones of apples annually but only 3,000 tones
were exported last year. About 30 per cent apples wasted
every year in Balochistan only. Recently the government
has given approval for the establishment of treatment
plant in Quetta. While two plants are about to start
working in Karachi. It is estimated that after starting
of these treatment plants export of apples would be
increased to about 20,000 tons per annum. There are
good investment opportunities for the private sector
to establish processing units near the fruits and vegetable
growing areas. This would not only prevent wastage but
would also help to earn foreign exchange.
also bright prospects for exporting fruit juices and
pulps. By establishing modern plants, Pakistan can earn
foreign exchange three times more than that being earned
by export of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Sunny winters in Pakistan yield a large variety of citrus
fruits. The juicy kinno is a unique hybrid of two varieties
of California Oranges. It has a soft skin which is easy
to peel and has a lovely fragrance.
Pakistan is fortunate in having great diversity
in its soil and in its ecological and climatic conditions,
ranging from extremely warm to temperate, to very cold.
This enables the country to grow many kinds of trees,
plants, shrubs, vines and creepers which yield a large
variety of fruits and vegetables.