Introduction and Importance:
Mango (Mangifera indica L Family Anacardiaceae)
is the second major fruit crop in Pakistan. At present
it is grown on an area of 93.42 thousand hectares with
production 915.7 thousand tonnes Table-1. The area under
mango crop has increased but the rise in production is
comparatively slow. The main mango growing districts in
the Punjab province are Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzzaffargarh
and Rahim yar Khan. In the province of Sindh it is mainly
grown in Mir pur Khas, Hyderabad and Thatta in the province
of NWFP it is grown in D.I Khan, Peshawar and Mardan.
The climate of Sindh gets warmer about one month earlier
than the Punjab which has given the province the privilege
to grow early varieties of mango. Subsequently, a new
trend of growing late varieties in Punjab has received
a wide popularity which has extended the market period
and added to the exportable surplus.
Table 1. Area and production of Mango in Pakistan (1992-2002).
This delicious fruit is nutritionally superior, source
of several vitamins and minerals. Pakistan produces
5.86 percent world's mangoes being the third largest
producer. Its export is progressing resulting into substantial
foreign exchange earnings. Mango export including Middle
East has also found its way to the UK and other European
markets. It is believed that the demand would rise to
as high as 50 percent given the right impetus and expanding
the export to Germany, Japan China and Hong Kong.
Climate and Soil:
The ecological conditions suitable for mango cultivation
- Elevations ranging from 200 to 300 meters.
- Suitable temperature range is 15 to 40oC. Low temperatures
are extremely harmful. Frosts and hot winds cause
great damage to the trees. Young plants need protection
against frost and hot winds.
- A hot and humid climate is suitable. In areas with
heavy rainfall, the quality of fruit may be affected.
- Mango can be grown in a wide range of soils but
well drained, deep and fertile soils are most
- Suitable. Salt affected soil is not good for its
Propagation is done by various means of grafting on
|Suitable age of nursery plant for
||1.5 to 2.0 year
|Time for transplanting:
||In spring: Feb/March
||Time to start of bearing: 4-5 years
||Time to full bearing: 6-7 years
||Normal economic bearing life:30-50 years
||Time of flowering: Feb/Mar
Leading Commercial varieties:
||Sindhri, Gulabkhas, Swarnarice, Baganpalli,
||Malda, Langra, Aman Duseri, Anwar Ratol, Samer
Bahisht, Fajri Kalan and Sensation.
|| Lengra and Samer Bahisht
|| Sindhri and Banganpalli
|Annual Crop Water Demand:
|Mature trees in winter
|Mature trees in summer
- Apply farm yard manure at the rate of 10-30 kg per
young plant and 80 to 100 kg per full grown tree.
- Apply 3-4 kg SSP, 2-3 kg Potassium Sulphate and
2-3 kg Urea before flowering (Dec to Jan).
- Apply a further 2-3 kg Urea after fruit setting
in two equal doses (Mar/Apr).
Mango usually assumes a graceful dome shape shading
the main trunk. No pruning is practiced however, annually
after fruit harvest diseased, dried, broken branches
and those touching the ground should be pruned off.
To rejuvenate the orchard after every 3-4 years it is
advisable that 15-20% of old wood should be removed.
Harvesting: Picking should be done
when the fruit is fully developed and mature. Natural
drop of the fruit is the main indication that the fruit
is ready for picking. Different varieties in different
areas ripe at different times. In Sindh, mango varieties
start ripening from May to June. In Punjab ripening
starts from June and continues up to mid August. In
NWFP, the harvest is a later which helps to extend the
period that mangoes are available. Expected yields vary
from 40 to 100 kg per tree.
Pests and Diseases:
Aphids: These suck the sap of the leaves and
attack the plant during Feb/Aug. Use Folido 50% EC at
the rate of 0.45 litres 450 litres of water per acre.
Fruitflies: These attack mango fruits
throughout the season. They have three generations and
multiply very rapidly. For effective control collect
all the fallen and affected fruits and bury them deep
into the soil. Pheromone traps can also be used for
trapping the male population. Use Dioptries 80% at the
rate of 1 litre in 450 litres of water or Malathion
57% at the rate of 0.5 litre to 450 litres of water
Mango Borer: These cause damage to
shoots and stems between May and Oct. To protect the
stems, cover them with a cloth or Jute and paste charcoal
over it. Fostoxin tablets can also be placed and sealed
in the holes made by the borers.
Mango Scales: These suck the sap from
the leaves as a results of which the tree starts drying.
Collect the affected leaves and burn them to check further
spread. Use Metasystox 25% EC at the rate of 0.3 litre
in 450 litres of water of Fotidal 50 EC at the rate
of 0.5 litre in 450 litres of water per acre1.
Mango Malformation: This is a very
serious disease of mango in which the leaves and inflorescence
are badly deformed and gradually dry up. There is no
fruit setting and no production is obtained. There is
no effective control yet, however, with better cultural
measures incidence can be rudeced.
Mango Blight: This is caused by Erwinia
bacteria. Many spots appear on the leaves which cause
a reduction in growth and yield. Use Dithane M 45 at
the rate of 750 gram in 450 litres of water per acre.
Taste and Texture of Various Varieties
Virtually all the importers, wholesalers/distributors
are unanimous in the view that Pakistani mango is superior
in taste to other mangoes save for Alphonso of Indian
origin. They are all aware of the availability of the
product and the fact that it is available from Asian
Some of the non-Asian varieties are yellow just like
Sindhri but mostly they are green with yellow or red
blush. Some varieties are full green. Those chilled
and sent by sea have no aroma while uncut but those
sent fresh by air have, although not as much as Pakistan's.
Pakistani mango is sweeter than non-Asian with higher
sugar content. This also makes it more susceptible to
germs which blemish the skin. British non-Asians are
not used to a wholly yellow mango as they deal with
mostly green with red or yellow blushing.
There is no duty on Pakistani mango. Non GSP countries
have only 1% duty since there are no EU growers to protect.
A 4 kg net box of South American mango with 7 - 9 counts
is available at wholesale for around 14/-. However,
some varieties such as Ivory Coast's Kent or Gambia's
Haden are as high as £ 6/-. Some varieties in the same
packaging are as low as £ 3.50. However, retail pricing
is by the piece or by pair. Some retail prices among
super markets in the middle of May this year are as
- Extra large' smooth texture, Keitt variety from
Puerto Rico, shelf life 3 days under open refrigerator,
£ 1.29 each. Medium size 79p each.
- Medium size, Tommy Atkins variety from Guatemala,
on foam tray, cellophane covered, £ 1.59 per
pair. Same for Haden variety from Puerto Rico.
'Safeway exotic,' mini sized from Honduras 99p per pair.
Shelf display 3 days under open refrigeration and best
up to 7 days.
Sainsbury Medium sized Honduran, Puerto
Rican, 99p/piece. Display life 3 days refrigerated
Marks & Spencer
- "St. Michael" brand, large (green) Nicaraguan
origin £ 1.49 each, display life 3 days refrigerated.
- Medium size, Mexican origin, 2 for £ 1.99
placed on foam/plastic tray, covered by cellophane.
- Cut mango in slices/nuggets, produce of various
countries, packed in South Africa, 96p per 100 grams.
| C&F London (2 kg. gross box)
£ 2.20 Transport, clearing, handling £
0.34 Commission to agent £ 0.10
|Add : Retailers profit(max.)
£ 3.50 (say)
Mango from Punjab in Pakistan fetches higher price
and better margins. The above is an example for early
season. This is followed by a glut where retailer's
margin can drop to 10 -20p. At the time of writing this
report wholesalers were charging 70 - 90p profit on
Sindhri variety per 2 kg box since this is the beginning
of season. Price for 3 kg box is 14.50 to £ 4.75 wholesale.
A 15 - 16 count box of Mexican air-freighted mango
was being sold at £ 9.00 to £9.50 (weight about 5 kg).
Similarly, small sucking Ghanaian mango could be bought
for 112.50 for a box of approx. 8 kg.
Prices are thus very varied between varieties and time
of year. Early arrivals in all classes can fetch better
margins. Such variation can also be explained by the
market segment varieties cater to. Indian mango is expensive
because it is costly in country of origin and in shorter
supply in UK than Pakistan's. However, it is bought
mainly by Indians perhaps on nationalistic values (or
since they hail from the same region).Pakistani mango
is bought by Indians as well.
Prices in multiples are, however, stable and importer/wholesaler
has to vary his profit margin in front of the awesome
buying strength/size of turnover of a multiple.
Demand for Pakistani mango iso said to fall at the
end of the season as the market segment is restricted.
How much can one supply to the same segment month after
An example given by one importer/distributor for Ivory
Coast mango is as under:
|I. C&F (4 kg. net box) Felixstow
port, E. Anglia, UK.
|2. Charge by agent for services such as clearing,
handling, checking quality and transportation to
distribution centre or wholesale market
|3. Importers commission 6-8%
|4. Wholesalers/suppliers to catering, hotel,
retail trade, 8 -10% commission
|5. Retailers margin 35 -45%
Profit margin is considered as an average during the
year rather than on consignment basis because earlier
arrivals with higher margin could even out later arrivals
which give lesser profit margin. This is true in the
case of Pakistani mango as well.
Harvesting, Handling. Storage
Most non-Asian mangoes are picked and shipped green,
then ripened on arrival for sale. This protects the
fruit from damage and allows the retailer to know the
stage of ripeness in order to show its shelf life. At
the same time it becomes difficult to know when to pick.
Care must be taken to ensure that the node is not leaking,
there is no turpentine flavour and the variety is fiberless.
Varieties with fibre are displayed as such but not very
popular. South American mangoes are shipped in temperature
control of 7° - 14°C and can be held up to 4 weeks under
correct conditions. The ripening temperature is 20°
-32°C. Hot water treatment may be required to kill germs
which cause blemishes on skin. Blast chilling is required
for taking the heat out of the product.
European standards require traceability of fruit products
i.e. every mango can be traced back to its farm. It
is picked raw, chilled, and transported under controlled
temperature so that it ripens slightly on the way. On
arrival it has storage life of 7 - 14 days and can be
ripened under controlled conditions. Since mangoes are
sold individually at the retail stage, it is essential
to have each piece at the same stage of ripeness. The
7 - 14 days of storage time allows the importer/distributor
ample handling time and to push the fruit as demanded
by customers. Proper refrigeration also allows the fruit,
which is waxed and polished, to maintain its shine and
spotless surface, making the red blemish look tempting.
Traceability is essential so that in case and disease
is detected in any piece its origin can be traced and
isolated rather than destroying the entire cargo. Even
in cases of smaller items like potato chips (Walkers
for instance), there are cold storages on the farm and
each crate denotes the area of the farm from where its
Suppliers to supermarkets have been approached in the
past years. Most major importers recall the initiative.
Strategy for Branding Pakistani Mango
PHDEB has recently suggested introducing
Pakistani mango as a branded product. Branded products
need to be different in a market where non-branded but
similar quality generic varieties are available at competitive
prices. Branded products are generally expensive as
compared to their non-branded counterparts.
The target market: The target market
for a branded mango should be the segment where Pakistani
mango is not available. Non-branded "mango would easily
under cut the branded mango on the basis of price in
the ethnic market of 2m people. Positioning of the branded
product should be against the South American mango which
has an inferior taste
Product: In the absence of infrastructure
in the country, it may not be workable to promote Pakistani
mango as such by a brand name .Product should be a non
standard size large mango available in two colours,
yellow and green. Since the standard size of the already
available mango is between 225-400 gm. A branded mango
should be on the higher side. It would be placed on
foam tray, covered by cellophane, labeled, and initially
accompanied by instructions on various ways to cut and
recipes for use such as in milk shake and ice cream.
Placement: The product would be available
in supermarkets. A large importer would need to be tapped
and exclusivity of the brand for distribution purposes
to be given to him. Due to the fact that sea freight
has not been developed in Pakistan, means of transport
will be air. Product will mainly cater to the non-expatriate
British population and compete against the South American.
South African and Mexican mango.
Pricing: Limited supply would necessitate
higher profit margin for the retailer and the importer.
Importer would need to be given incentive to start something
new in the market.
Promotion: In-house promotion in a
major supermarket chain, free samples to be distributed
initially. Due to the exclusivity of the brand, general
promotion in trade magazines is not suggested.
- Although the exports of Pakistani mangoes to UK have
been increasing in the last few years these generally
remain confined to the expatriate Asian population.
Individual efforts have been made to break into the
British retail multiples but without success
- The demand for Pakistani mango may even increase
for a few more years but it is bound to reach a saturation
level if market segment does not expand. The segment
is approximately two million people. This will also
result in gradually lower profit margins for the farmer
- Quantity-wise Pakistan has around 16% of the total
import market in the UK. Worldwide it is the second
largest market due to the large expatriate population.
This could also explain why Dubai is the no. l market
and Saudi Arabia no.3. The fact that countries like
Singapore and Japan also import Pakistani mango shows
general acceptance of its taste.
- Pakistani mango is air freighted to UK whereas non-Asian
ones are brought by sea with resultant low freight charges,
longer shelf life and consistency in ripeness.
Since non-Asian mango is properly chilled it has a long
storage and shelf life which is preferred by large importers/distributors
but is also a precondition.
- Catering, restaurants, hotels supplies commands
substantial market segment but Pakistani mango is
absent from the New Covent Garden in London which
is the hub of such distributors/suppliers. Four main
multiples with 40% of the fruit market do not buy
Pakistani mango but are aware. However, their conditions
- General branding of Pakistani mango is not expected
to be successful in the absence of a strong supplier
backed by modem supply chain. Branding a specific
size for positioning in the upper end of the market
may be tried but the possibility of developing and
maintaining such a product need to be further discussed.
- Consumer market is so diverse that pricing and
packaging can be varied. If target is supermarkets
then for their immense buying power packaging requirements
will have to be standardized and profit margins altered.
Success with one supermarket chain has the potential
of developing into success for EU.
- Market can constrict due to raise also in input
prices for Pakistani mango. In a country where inflation
hovers around 2% the increase in C&F prices of
our mango in year 2000 over that of last year has
been a phenomenal 20% which is an obvious disincentive
for doing business with multiples who are engaged
in price wars with each other.
- With infrastructure even unbranded product can
be successful. Over a period of time branding can
be introduced on the strength of each supplying company.
- We have the great advantage that our mango is good,
our task would be much more difficult if we had everything
else right but that nobody liked the mango!
A developing country supplier wishing to become a significant
long term exporter to the UK and other EC markets must
consider the necessity of investing in post harvest cool
chain facilities such as field coolers, climate zed trucks,
cool stores, packing facilities, traceability, and all
the other equipment that goes to make up a modern fresh
produce pack house. Major retail grocery groups are increasingly
dominating overall market and remain open till after six,
some for 24 hours six days a week and other even on Sunday.
Almost all of our competing countries have developed technology
with their advantage of cheap labour as well.
initiative', has potential if it has the backing of PHDEB.
It cannot be achieved in a single mango season before
launching a promotional campaign/branding of product the
back up infrastructure must be in place.
be a two way communication between Commercial Officers
and PHDEB. List of suppliers who have modern pack houses,
chilling facilities and system of traceability should
be prepared and they should be made market leaders for
Many small and poor countries have developed post
harvest technologies, perhaps with EU or World Bank assistance/funding.
Examples are Ghana and Ivory Coast. Pilot projects have
been started in Pakistan and assistance of UNDP taken.
There is an urgent need to find out why we haven't been
successful in post-harvest technology as desired by the
EU market, and given the constraints, should we even aim
PHDEB needs to work closely with few
exporters and lead them to breaking into supermarkets
with its Commercial Officers providing the foreign arm
required for the purpose.